2 Opinion Page November 2 2022 | World and Press editorial ‘Jurassic Park’ may be becoming reality DE-EXTINCTION We should be keeping endangered species alive rather than bringing animals back from extinction. By the Guardian editorial team 1 THE LAST official sighting of a Tasmanian tiger in the wild occurred in 1930, when it was shot by a farmer. The marsupials, formally known as thylacines, were hunted to extinction by European settlers who considered them a threat to their sheep and poultry. However, the 6ftlong creatures may reappear if a group of biotechnologists have their way. 2 The company Colossal Biosciences, along with researchers from the University of Melbourne, plans to “de-extinct” the thylacine by using gene-editing technology. Australia has the fastest rate of mammal extinction in the world; disappearances are down to the arrival of foreign species and wildfires Training | mündl. Prüfung linked to the climate crisis. Scientists argue that in Tasmania, the loss of the thylacine left the numbers of smaller marsupials unchecked, leading to overgrazing and threatening a fragile ecological balance. 3 If it all sounds like a plot line from ‘Jurassic Park’, then that is because the science behind the resurrection plan provided the movie’s inspiration. Last year, Colossal, co-founded by a Harvard geneticist, raised m – including cash from the billionaire producer of the latest ‘Jurassic Park’ movie – to help bring back a genetically engineered hybrid version of the woolly mammoth. The company makes a rather incredible claim that bringing back herds of these creatures to the northern tundra could reverse climate change in the Arctic. 4 The US-based firm takes a more conventional approach in Tasmania. Over the coming decade, it plans to use gene editing to turn the cell of one of the thylacine’s closest native relatives – either a dunnart or a numbat – into a thylacine cell. It would take these thylacine cells to create an embryo, either in a petri dish or the womb of a living animal. This embryo would then be implanted into a female marsupial that would, scientists hope, give birth to a “thylacine” baby. 5 There are good reasons to be sceptical about such a plan, notably that the available thylacine genome is incomplete. Filling the gaps is a challenge. An attempt to recover the genome of the Christmas Island rat, which became extinct more than 100 years ago, failed because nearly 5% of its DNA was impossible to fully recover. It is unclear how the Tasmanian tiger would deal with invasive species that have arrived since it became extinct. 6 There are more general concerns about unintended consequences. Once human-made changes to genomes are made, natural selection will take over and could affect the modifications in unknown ways. What if modified genes are spread to wild relatives? Given that the investors will want a return, there are also questions about who will own the endangered species modified by patented technologies – and who will be responsible for the consequences of their reintroduction. 7 Science should focus not on reviving extinct species but on keeping endangered ones alive. The California-based non-profit Revive and Restore cloned a black-footed ferret, named Elizabeth Ann, because wild colonies of these ferrets are threatened by inbreeding. As Elizabeth Ann was cloned from a ferret with no living descendants, she could become the first cloned mammal to help save an endangered species by injecting much-needed genetic diversity into its gene pool. 8 Animals’ evolution cannot keep up with the rate of change in their habitats. Rather than re-establish ecosystems of the past, science should be tasked with increasing the rate at which species can adapt. © 2022 Guardian News and Media Ltd 0 – 1 DE-EXTINCTION“Ædi…Ik"stINkS´n‘ Wiederbelebung ausgestorbener Arten; s.w.u. to de-extinct wiederbeleben — extinction Aussterben; s.w.u. to become extinct aussterben — sighting Sichtung — Tasmanian tiger “tœz"meIni´n‘; s.w.u. thylacine “"TaIl´si…n‘ Beutelwolf — in the wild in freier Wildbahn — marsupial “mA…"su…pi´l‘ Beuteltier — formally h.: in der Fachsprache — settler Siedler(in) — poultry “"p´Ultri‘ Geflügel — to have one’s way (fig) seine Vorstellungen durchsetzen 2 gene-editing technology “"dZi…n ÆedItINg‘ Gentechnik — mammal “"mœm´l‘ Säugetier — to be down to s.th. auf etw. zurückzuführen sein — wildfire Flächenbrand — to leave the numbers unchecked h.: s. unkontrolliert ausbreiten können — over-grazing Überweidung — fragile “"frœdZaIl‘ empfindlich 3 plot line Handlungsstrang — resurrection “Ærez´r"ekS´n‘ Wiederauferstehung — to co-found mitbegründen — geneticist “dZ´"netIsIst‘ Genforscher(in) — billionaire “ÆbIlj´"ne´‘ Milliardär(in) — genetically engineered “dZ´"netIk´li‘ gentechnisch erzeugt — woolly mammoth Wollmammut — to reverse rückgängig machen — the Arctic die Arktis 4 – 5 dunnart Schmalfuß-Beutelmaus — numbat Ameisenbeutler — petri dish Petrischale — womb “wu…m‘ Gebärmutter — to implant einpflanzen — notably “"n´Ut´bli‘ insbesondere — genome “"dZi…n´Um‘ Genom — to recover h.: rekonstruieren — Christmas Island rat Maclear-Ratte 6 unintended unbeabsichtigt — once sobald — natural selection natürliche Selektion — modification Veränderung; s.w.u. to modify “"mÅdIfaI‘ verändern — given that da — return Rendite — reintroduction “ri…ÆIntr´"døkS´n‘ Wiederansiedlung 7 – 8 non-profit gemeinnützige Organisation — black-footed ferret Schwarzfußiltis — inbreeding Inzucht — descendant “dI"send´nt‘ Nachkomme — to inject einbringen — genetic diversity “daI"v‰…s´ti‘ genetische Vielfalt — to keep up with Schritt halten mit — habitat Lebensraum — to re-establish wiederherstellen — to be tasked with doing die Aufgabe haben zu tun mit Interpretation impressum ISSN 0509-1632 GOP Landslide or Maybe Not. | Cartoon: Jeffrey Koterba, CagleCartoons.com World and Press erscheint 2 × monatlich (Juli und Dezember als Doppelausgabe) in der Carl Ed. 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World and Press | November 2 2022 In Focus 3 Hollywood production in U.K. soars to record levels BUSINESS Britain’s generous film incentives are a big draw for studios. mit Übungsmaterial By Anousha Sakoui 1 IN THEfar corner of Warner Bros. Studios Leavesden, star Vin Diesel was having a smoke with a colleague between takes for ‘Fast X,’ where a car flip scene was being filmed for the latest in the ‘Fast & Furious’ franchise. He rested on a barrier under a hot August sun, overlooking a 50-acre field that housed the remains of King’s Landing’s Red Keep – a castle set piece vestige from the yearlong filming for HBO Max’s eagerly awaited ‘Game of Thrones’ prequel. While the original hit was filmed in Northern Ireland, Leavesden expanded its facilities to help persuade the filmmakers of ‘House of the Dragon’ to shoot in England. 2 The studio, a former World War II aircraft factory in Watford, has been booked out as production levels are busier than ever. Since Warner Bros. acquired Leavesden in 2010 for 1.4 million, the lot has doubled in size, growing to 20 stages from nine, spanning 1.5 million square feet. Warner Bros.’ ‘Barbie’ and ‘Wonka’ just wrapped filming on the lot. Universal Pictures also is planning to film part of ‘Wicked’ – the film adaptation of the Broadway musical starring Ariana Grande and Cynthia Erivo – at Leavesden. 3 “It’s a really exciting time. And it’s incredibly busy,” Emily Stillman, senior vice president of Leavesden, said. “We had some space become available in the second half of this year, and we filled that almost immediately. We could have sold that again, two or three times over.” 4 After the COVID-19 pandemic caused numerous shutdowns and delays, the U.K. is once again enjoying a surge in production activity. Spending on film and highend television shoots reached a record £5.72 billion in the fiscal year ended in June, according to the British Film Institute. Television production during the period reached £3.88 billion, the highest level on record. 5 The U.K. has a long tradition of film production, from the James Bond movies to ‘Star Wars’ and ‘Harry Potter.’ Studios and streaming companies are taking advantage of some of the world’s most stable and lucrative film incentives, which were recently expanded to include TV, animation, and video games. 6 “There’s been an absolutely colossal amount of film and television production happening in the U.K. We’ve broken all records in terms of inward investment,” said Adrian Wootton, chief executive of the British Film Commission. “We’re very much an agent of growth, an agent of recovery, for the U.K. economy.” 7 The boom has been driven by several factors, including pent-up demand caused by earlier shutdowns, favorable exchange rates, and a slew of high-end television productions from Netflix, Apple, Amazon, and other streaming giants reshaping the TV industry. “It’s just gone absolutely thermonuclear,” said Spencer MacDonald, national secretary of Bectu, the union representing over 40,000 staff, contract, and freelance workers in the media and Paddy Considine and Milly Alcock in ‘House of the Dragon.’ | Photo: Ollie Upton/HBO/ TNS entertainment industries. “The amount of content that [streaming companies] are trying to produce is just phenomenal.” … 8 Britain’s generous film incentives – a 25% cash rebate that applies to actors’ salaries and other so-called above-the-line costs – have been a big draw for studios like Warner Bros. The weakening British pound has also made U.S. dollars go further. “It’s pretty close to the perfect incentive,” said Joseph Chianese, senior vice president at Burbank-based Entertainment Partners. “In the U.K., they really see the film and TV industry as an integral part of their economy. It’s a real economic driver.” 9 Aside from the tax incentives, Hollywood studio executives also point to the quality of local crews. “You can make an entire movie with local crew, and that’s a big benefit,” said Jeff LaPlante, president of physical production at Universal Pictures. “They have great technicians.” 10 During a visit to Los Angeles in May, London Mayor Sadiq Khan announced plans with Universal Pictures to create a training program to cultivate more diverse crew members. Under that plan, the studio agreed to have young Londoners from underrepresented communities work on British productions this year, such as ‘Wicked’ and ‘Fast X.’ 11 All the growth has created an overall shortage of crews. Film and premium television production is expected to reach £7.66 billion by 2025, requiring nearly 21,000 crew to meet demand, according to a report by Screen- Skills, a nonprofit that trains crews. The rapid growth is creating “highly pressurized workplaces” which could become a detriment to the British film industry, the report said. 12 Labor tensions have also been on the rise as crews, like their U.S. counterparts, work longer hours to keep up with demand. Bectu’s MacDonald says the industry needs to “make it more attractive for people to come in and ... also addresses the issue for people already in the industry, so people don’t get burned out, and they don’t leave.” Meanwhile, producers worry about rising labor costs. “If the U.K. becomes too expensive, they’ll just move production,” said John McVay, chief executive of PACT, the trade body representing independent production and distribution companies in the U.K. 13 Leavesden is adapting to help attract crews. Stillman started a child-care facility on the lot for its freelance workers. The complex also includes a state-of-the-art gym, where crew line up from 5 a.m. to work out before the day starts, she said. The studio also offers mental health services for workers who want support. “What we’ve got to do ... is make sure that we keep investing in all the elements, whether that’s people or facilities and spaces, or confidence in the tax credit,” Stillman said. “All those elements have to come together to keep this momentum going.” © 2022 Los Angeles Times. Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. 0 TO SOARsprunghaft ansteigen — film incentive “In"sentIv‘ steuerl. Anreize für die Filmindustrie — draw Anziehungsfaktor 1 to have a smoke rauchen — take Aufnahme — Fast X internationaler Titel: Fast & Furious 10 — car flip scene Szene, in der s. ein Auto überschlägt — franchise Filmreihe — 50 acres ca. 20,2 ha — to house beherbergen — remains; s.w.u. vestige “"vestIdZ‘ Überbleibsel — set piece Kulisse — eagerly awaited mit Spannung erwartet — to shoot drehen 2 – 3 aircraft factory Flugzeugfabrik — lot Gelände — to span s. erstrecken über — 1.5 million square feet ca. 13,9 ha — to wrap filming die Dreharbeiten beenden — starring … mit … in den Hauptrollen 4 – 6 numerous “"nju…m´r´s‘ zahlreich — surge “s‰…dZ‘ starker Anstieg — spending Ausgaben — high-end teuer und aufwendig — billion Milliarde — fiscal year Geschäftsjahr — inward investment Investitionen ausländischer Unternehmen — chief executive “Æ-Ig"zekj´tIv‘ Geschäftsführer(in) — agent of growth Wachstumsfaktor — recovery Aufschwung 7 pent-up demand Nachholbedarf — favorable “"feIv´r´b´l‘ günstig — exchange rate Wechselkurs — a slew of (coll) e-e Reihe von — to reshape umgestalten — to go thermonuclear “ÆT‰…m´U"nju…klI´‘ (coll, fig) explosionsartig ansteigen — national secretary Generalsekretär(in) — contract worker Auftragnehmer(in) 8 – 9 rebate Rabatt — above-the-line costs Ausgaben vor Beginn der Dreharbeiten (Ankauf der Rechte, Gehälter, Gagen etc.) — to go further h.: mehr wert sein — integral part “"IntIgr´l‘ wesentlicher Bestandteil — economic driver Wirtschaftsmotor — president of physical production Leiter(in) der Produktionsabteilung — technician “tek"nIS´n‘ Fachkraft 10 – 11 to cultivate “"køltIveIt‘ ausbilden — premium television Bezahlfernsehen — to meet demand die Nachfrage bedienen — nonprofit gemeinnützige Organisation — highly pressurized … “"preS´raIzd‘ … mit hoher Arbeitsbelastung — detriment “"detrIm´nt‘ Nachteil 12 labor tensions “"tenS´nz‘ Spannungen zw. Arbeitgebern und Arbeitnehmern — to be on the rise zunehmen — counterparts h.: Kollegen(-innen) — to keep up with (fig) Schritt halten mit — to address “-"-‘ angehen — to move verlagern — trade body Branchenverband — distribution company “ÆdIstrI"bju…S´n‘ Vertriebsunternehmen 13 child-care facility Kinderbetreuungseinrichtung — stateof-the-art hochmodern — mental health services psycholog. Betreuung — tax credit Steuervergünstigung(en) — … to keep this momentum going “m´"ment´m‘ (fig) … um diese Dynamik aufrechtzuerhalten