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World and Press November 2 2022

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8 Europe November 2 2022 | World and Press Irish farmers say they will be forced to cull cows to meet climate targets EMISSIONS A government plan to cut agriculture emissions by 25% by 2030 will drive many farms into bankruptcy, say critics. By Rory Carroll 1 DONALD SCULLYgazes at his herd of 208 cows munching grass and clover in a verdant field, as a light breeze ruffles the stillness. “There is an enjoyment for me to come out and look and see how healthy and happy these cows are,” says Scully, 47, a third-generation dairy farmer. “Every single cow has her own personality; they’re all individuals.” 2 The pastoral scene in Ballyheyland, a landscape of rolling hills in County Laois, is replicated across rural Ireland. Ireland has 7.3 million cattle, substantially outnumbering humans, and a long history with the animal stretching into myth, including ‘The Cattle Raid of Cooley’, an epic tale considered the Irish ‘Iliad’. Agriculture dominated the economy well into the 20th century and moulded A red Holstein cow. | Photo: Wolfgang Claussen/ Pixabay a vision of Ireland that still enchants visitors. 3 Cows, however, now symbolise something else: a climate crisis quandary. Instead of cutting emissions, Ireland has continued increasing them, and the biggest contributor is agriculture. Ireland’s 135,000 farms produce 37.5% of national emissions, the highest proportion in the European Union, and most of that comes from methane associated with belching by ruminant animals. 4 Under a new government plan, agriculture must reduce emissions by 25% by 2030. Other sectors face even higher targets – transport must reduce emissions by 50%, commercial and public buildings by 40% – but the loudest protests have come from farmers. 5 Cutting emissions by a quarter will drive many farms into bankruptcy and could force the culling of hundreds of thousands of cows, they say. “The mood is hugely frustrated,” said Pat McCormack, head of the Irish Creamery Milk Suppliers Association. “It’s very hard to quantify, but there will be increased costs and reduced output.” Farmers and their allies have accused the coalition government, which includes the Green Party, of scapegoating rural Ireland and leaving farmers little option but to cull herds. So far there have been no Dutch-style protests. 6 Until recently, the government had encouraged dairy farmers to expand to exploit the end of EU milk quotas. Farmers invested in new equipment, and the dairy herd grew by almost half in the past decade. Irish butter, cheese, and other produce – 90% is exported – filled supermarket shelves around the world. “All the talk was of what dairy could deliver for the economy and society and we did that in spades. Now it’s the bad boy,” said Mc- Cormack. 7 In Ballyheyland, Scully, who owns 60 hectares of land and rents another 60 hectares in the shadow of the Cullenagh Mountain, not only multiplied his herd five-fold, he made it pedigree Holstein Friesian. His cows roam the fields and subsist mainly on grass, a key selling point that distinguishes Irish produce from other countries that house cows in concrete sheds. 8 The work is 24/7, Scully says. “You have to love it, otherwise you wouldn’t do it.” He hopes his teenage son will become the fourth generation Scully to raise cows but says climate targets could imperil the farm’s future. “It’s all happening so quickly, and they’re looking for results so fast. Sometimes you would be better moving slow and doing it right.” A way of life, he says, is at stake. “You don’t miss anything until it’s gone.” 9 Farmers hope that proposed changes in calculating methane emissions, greater efficiencies, new technologies, and other measures could avert the need to reduce herds. 10 John Sweeney, a climate expert at Maynooth University, is sceptical. “Various tried and untried methods have been advanced to suggest compliance with the 25% emissions ceiling.” They were insufficient, he said. “Only a reduction in numbers can achieve the targets in the short term.” Sweeney estimates Ireland will need to reduce its number of cattle by one million by 2030. “The use of emotive words like ‘cull’ is unhelpful and inflames a process which can be managed in a more gradual manner,” he said. 11 Farmers were getting off lightly compared with other sectors, said Sweeney. “Agriculture has received a very generous emission ceiling, largely due to the powerful lobby groups it possesses.” The rest of society faces a 60% reduction in emissions to soak up the slack from agriculture. … © 2022 Guardian News and Media Ltd 0 – 1 TO CULLkeulen — to drive into bankruptcy “"bœNkr´psi‘ in die Insolvenz treiben — to gaze at auf etw. blicken — to munch fressen — clover “"kl´Uv´‘ Klee — verdant “"v‰…d´nt‘ grün — to ruffle durcheinanderbringen; h.: stören — dairy farmer Milchbauer(-bäuerin); s.w.u. dairy Molkereiprodukte 2 pastoral “"pA…st´r´l‘ idyllisch — to replicate “"replIkeIt‘ s. wiederholen — substantially “s´b"stœnS´li‘ erheblich — to outnumber ... die Zahl an … übertreffen — cattle raid Rinderraub — Iliad “"Iliœd‘ Ilias — to mould “m´Uld‘ formen — vision Bild — to enchant bezaubern 3 – 4 quandary “"kwÅnd´ri‘ Dilemma — contributor “k´n"trIbj´t´‘ Verursacher — proportion Anteil — methane “"mi…TeIn‘ Methan — belching Rülpsen — ruminant “"ru…mIn´nt‘ wiederkäuend 5 – 6 Irish Creamery Milk Suppliers Association Verband der irischen Milchbauern (c. Molkerei) — ally “"œlaI‘ Unterstützer(in) — to scapegoat s.o. jdn. zum Sündenbock machen — in spades im Überfluss 7 – 9 pedigree “"pedIgri…‘ reinrassig — to roam h.: frei weiden auf — to subsist on “-"-‘ s. ernähren von — selling point Pluspunkt — to house unterbringen — concrete shed Stall aus Beton — to imperil “Im"per´l‘ gefährden — to be at stake auf dem Spiel stehen — to avert etw. abwenden 10 – 11 untried nicht erprobt — compliance “k´m"plaIens‘ Einhaltung — emissions ceiling Emissionsobergrenze — insufficient “ÆIns´"fIS´nt‘ unzureichend — emotive word Reizwort — to inflame emotional aufladen — to get off lightly glimpflich davonkommen — to soak up the slack from s.o. (coll) für die Versäumnisse von jdm. aufkommen Swedish island holds ‘ugliest lawn’ contest to help conserve water DROUGHT By Zach Rosenthal 1 AS Arecord-setting drought dries lawns across Europe, one Swedish municipality is opting to promote its water conservation efforts and change social norms with an “ugliest lawn” contest. The Swedish island of Gotland is a popular vacation spot, but the influx of tourists this summer has strained water supplies, according to the ‘Guardian.’ To help conserve water, the municipality implemented an irrigation ban, preventing residents from watering their lawns. 2 To help win over the community, the “Gotland’s Ugliest Lawn” competition was launched to make a brown lawn something to be proud of. Competition judge John Mattisson called it a “fun way to change the norm of green lawns in a climate where they’re not natural” in a statement. 3 Such efforts have apparently worked: Water consumption has dropped enough that the irrigation ban will be lifted on Sept. 1, said competition judge Johan Gustafsson to ‘The Washington Post.’ Contest entries were made through Instagram. 4 “The work of following and finally crowning the ugliest lawn of the year on Gotland has been a fun assignment during the summer months,” Mattisson said in a statement. “No grass and barely a carpet says a lot about this year’s winning entry.” 5 Out of several truly ugly entries, the eventual winner was Marcus Norström, who was dedicated to preserving water. Norström evidently did not water his lawn the entire summer, turning it into the opposite of what society defines as the picturesque lawn; his lawn is sparsely covered in grass, with the few remaining blades a sickly shade of yellow. 6 In a statement, the team of judges said the winner was “a really lousy lawn that lives up to all our expectations of Gotland’s ugliest lawn and has good conditions for a more sustainable improvement.” The competition’s prize was a visit from local gardener Sara Gistedt, who also was a contest judge. She will help Norström plan a droughtresistant garden. … © 2022 The Washington Post 0 LAWNRasen — to conserve sparen; s.w.u. water conservation Wassereinsparung — drought “draUt‘ Dürre; s.w.u. drought-resistant “rI"zIst´nt‘ dürreresistent 1 – 3 municipality “mju…ÆnIsI"pœl´ti‘ Kommune — to opt to do s. entscheiden zu tun — influx Zustrom — to strain belasten — to implement “"ImplIment‘ verhängen — irrigation Bewässerung — to win s.o. over jdn. überzeugen — consumption Verbrauch 4 – 5 assignment Aufgabe — carpet Rasenfläche — eventual letztlich — to be dedicated to doing “"dedIkeItId‘ s. verschrieben haben zu tun — evidently “"evId´ntli‘ offensichtlich — picturesque “ÆpIktS´r"esk‘ malerisch — sparsely spärlich — blade Halm — sickly blass; kränklich 6 lousy (coll) lausig — to live up to s.o.’s expectations “Æekspek"teIS´nz‘ jds. Erwartungen erfüllen — sustainable “s´"steIn´b´l‘ nachhaltig

World and Press | November 2 2022 Devastated by floods, Pakistan faces looming food crisis ECONOMY The flooding has crippled Pakistan’s agricultural sector, battering the country as it reels from an economic crisis and double-digit inflation. By Christina Goldbaum and Zia ur-Rehman 1 VIOLENT SWELLS have swept away roads, homes, schools, and hospitals across much of Pakistan. Millions of people have been driven from their homes, struggling through waist-deep, fetid water to reach islands of safety. Nearly all of the country’s crops, along with thousands of livestock and stores of wheat and fertilizer, have been damaged – prompting warnings of a looming food crisis. 2 Since a deluge of monsoon rains lashed Pakistan last week, piling more water on top of more than two months of record flooding that has killed hundreds of people and displaced tens of millions, the Pakistani government and international relief organizations have scrambled to save people and vital infrastructure in what officials have called a climate disaster of epic proportions. 3 Floodwater now covers around one-third of the country, including its agricultural belt, with more rain predicted in the coming weeks. The damage from the flood will likely be “far greater” than initial estimates of around billion, according to the country’s planning minister, Ahsan Iqbal. 4 The flooding has crippled a country that was already reeling from an economic crisis and double-digit inflation that has sent the price of basic goods soaring. Now the flooding threatens to set Pakistan back years or even decades, officials warned, and to fan Women walk through floodwaters in Pakistan’s Sindh Province in September 2022. | Photo: Picture Alliance/AP | Infographic: Statista the flames of political tensions that have engulfed the country since Prime Minister Imran Khan was ousted this past spring. 5 The damage to the country’s agricultural sector could also be felt across the globe, experts warn. Pakistan is one of the world’s top producers and exporters of cotton and rice – crops that have been devastated by the flood. As much as half of the country’s cotton crop has been destroyed, officials said, a blow to global cotton production in a year when cotton prices have soared as other major producers from the United States to China have been hit with extreme weather. 6 The floodwaters also threaten to derail Pakistan’s wheat planting season this fall, raising the possibility of continued food shortfalls and price spikes through next year. It is an alarming prospect in a country that depends on its wheat production to feed itself at a time when global wheat supplies are precarious. 7 “We’re in a very dire situation,” said Rathi Palakrishnan, deputy country director of the World Food Programme in Pakistan. “There’s no buffer stocks of wheat. There’s no seeds because farmers have lost them. If the flood levels don’t recede before the planting season in October, we’re in big trouble.” 8 Prime Minister Shahbaz Sharif’s government, along with the United Nations, has appealed for 0 million in emergency funding to reach 5.2 million of the country’s most vulnerable people. 9 The scale of the devastation in Pakistan stands out even in a year punctuated by extreme weather, including heat waves across Europe and the United States, intense rain that has drenched parts of Asia, and the worst drought to hit East Africa in decades. Since the start of the monsoon season in Pakistan this summer, more than 1,300 people have died in floods – nearly half of whom were children – and more than 6,000 have been injured, according to the United Nations. Around 33 million people have been displaced. … 10 Sindh Province, which produces around one-third of the country’s food supply, has been among the hardest hit by the rains. The province received nearly six times its 30-year average rainfall this monsoon season, which has damaged around 50% of its crops, according to the U.N.’s Food and Agriculture Organization. Pakistan 9 11 In Sanghar, one of the largest cotton-producing districts in Sindh, Imdad Hingorja, a 45-yearold farmer, owns a small plot of land and was growing cotton. He said that the rains and floods came exactly when the crops in his fields were ready to harvest. “I have lost everything now. There is five to six feet of water in my fields, and I do not know how long it will take the water to dry,” said Hingorja, whose sole source of income to feed his five-member family is farming. 12 Hingorja recently took a loan from a relative to buy new seeds and fertilizer after his stores washed away in the floods. But if the waist-deep water does not subside by the time he needs to plant, he does not know what he will do. “Floods are God’s wrath, and we cannot escape from it. But who will tell it to the lender who will now ask me to pay back his money?” he said. “I will have not only lost my standing crops but also wasted my entire agriculture year.” 13 In Tank District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a vast province in the northwest, the flooding washed out 35 acres of land that Rahimullah Khan, 47, cultivates, destroying his entire crop of rice, corn, and sugar cane. He had poured his yearly savings into the crops, he said, and borrowed around 135,000 Pakistani rupees – or nearly ,700 – for fertilizer. “I am left with nothing but a pair of cows,” Khan said. “The dairy from the cow is the only thing keeping my children from complete hunger.” But if the water recedes, he added, he will have to sell the cows to pay back his loans and gather the resources he needs to plant his fall wheat crop. 14 Officials have warned that the damage and economic losses will be felt throughout the country for months and years to come. The loss of cotton to Pakistan’s textile industry, which contributes nearly 10% of the country’s gross domestic product, could hamper any hopes for an economic recovery. … © 2022 The New York Times Company This article originally appeared in The New York Times. 0 TO DEVASTATE“"dev´steIt‘ verwüsten; s.w.u. devastation Verwüstung — to loom s. abzeichnen — to cripple lahmlegen — agricultural sector “ÆœgrI"køltS´r´l‘ Agrarsektor — to batter beuteln — to reel from von etw. erschüttert sein — double-digit zweistellig 1 violent gewaltig — swell Welle — waist-deep hüfthoch — fetid “"fetId‘ übel riechend — livestock Vieh — store Vorrat; Lager — fertilizer “"f‰…tIlaIz´‘ Düngemittel — to prompt hervorrufen 2 – 3 deluge of rains “"delju…dZ‘ sintflutartige Regenfälle — to lash über etw. hinwegfegen — to pile on h.: zu etw. hinzukommen — to displace vertreiben — relief organization Hilfsorganisation — to scramble to do s. heftig bemühen — vital “"vaIt´l‘ lebensnotwendig — of epic proportions “pr´"pO…S´nz‘ epischen Ausmaßes — belt h.: Gebiet — billion Milliarde 4 – 6 to soar “sO…‘ sprunghaft ansteigen — to threaten “"Tret´n‘ drohen — to set back zurückwerfen — to fan the flames das Feuer anfachen — tensions Spannungen — to engulf etw. verschlingen; h.: s. in etw. ausbreiten — to oust s.o. “aUst‘ jdn. absetzen — to derail “Ædi…"reIl‘ scheitern lassen — wheat planting Weizenaussaat — food shortfall Nahrungsmittelknappheit — price spike Preissteigerung — precarious “prI"ke´ri´s‘ unsicher; schwierig 7 – 9 dire schlimm — deputy “"depj´ti‘ stellvertretend — buffer stocks Puffervorrat — seeds Saatgut — to recede “rI"si…d‘ zurückgehen — to appeal for um etw. bitten — funding Finanzmittel — vulnerable “"vøln´r´b´l‘ gefährdet — punctuated by “"pøNktSu…eItId‘ geprägt von — to drench durchnässen; h.: überschwemmen 10 – 12 food supply Nahrungsmittelversorgung — plot of land Stück Land — to harvest ernten — source of income Einkommensquelle — to take a loan e-n Kredit aufnehmen — to subside “s´b"saId‘ nachlassen; zurückgehen — wrath “rÅT‘ Zorn — lender Kreditgeber(in) 13 – 14 to wash out fortschwemmen — 35 acres ca. 14,2 ha — to cultivate bewirtschaften — sugar cane Zuckerrohr — savings Ersparnisse — dairy Molkereiprodukte — to contribute “k´n"trIbju…t‘ beitragen — gross domestic product Bruttoinlandsprodukt — to hamper behindern — economic recovery wirtschaftl. Erholung

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